Level 2 Lesson 3 / and, and then, therefore, so / 그리고, 그래서

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Hello everyone, we are back with another lesson! Like many languages in the world, there are many conjuctions in the Korean language. In this lesson we are introducing two of them: 그리고 and 그래서. 그리고 [geu-ri-go] has the meaning of “and” and “and then”, depending on the context. 그래서 [geu-rae-seo] has the meaning of “therefore” and “so”. If you have any questions, please feel free, as always, to leave us a comment! 감사합니다.

You can download a free PDF for this lesson here, or if you want to study with our TalkToMeInKorean textbooks, you can get them here.

  • Klaudia Klonowska

    한국어는 공부하고 깊어요. 그래서 한국 진구를 만나요. (is this present tense? therefore i meet Korean friends)

    • Gem

      한국어를 공부하고싶어요. 그래서 한국 친구들 만나요. (yes, it’s in the present tense)

  • Gem


  • Peri Martins

    I want to say 내일 파티 갈 거예요 ? and i want to answer No , i don`t have cloths so i`m not going , I don`t think it`s right buy im trying this way, 아니요, 천 없어요 그래서 안 갈 거예요 , is it right ?

  • 잔셑

    I have two questions.

    1. 저는 한국사람 어니에요, 그런데 한국어 너무 배우고싶어요, 그래서 한국어 공부해요.

    – I’m not a Korean person, but I want to learn Korean a lot, so I study Korean. (Kinda funny :D)

    2. 네일은 테스트 있었어요, 그래서 많이 공부했어요.

    – Yesterday, I had a test so I studied a lot.

    I feel like I’m all messed up. Please correct me :/.

    • JooyeonPark

      You did a good job! 🙂
      Here are a few corrections.
      1. 저는 한국 사람 아니에요. 그런데 한국어 너무 배우고 싶어서 한국어 공부해요.
      2. 어제 시험 있었어요. 그래서 많이 공부했어요. (=어제 시험 있어서 많이 공부했어요.)

    • 잔셑

      Ohhh yeah 내일 was tomorrow ㅋㅋㅋ :D. 감사합니다 주연 언니 <3

  • 이성환(아라스)

    저는 한국을 공부할 거예요, 그래서 한국어 많이 배워요.
    I want to say that ill study soon in Korea, so i learn a lot of korean.
    Is the sentence correct?

    • Sharmane Amago

      i think you should use 한국에 instead of 한국을 since 에 is a locative particle

  • 지아

    배고파요. 그래서, 먹을 거예요.

  • Sónia Alves

    안녕하세요, please help me out. Is this right? 그렇지만 너는 마자요, 저는 아니요. (Altough you are right, I don’t agree.) 그렇지만 너는 마자요, 저는 아니요. (Altought I want beer, I’ll drink juice). 감사합니다 🙂

    • Kenny Lau

      아니요 does indeed mean “I don’t agree”, but it is not a separate verb. It is a complete phrase on its own and it is wrong to treat it as a verb.

      Use 동의하다 for agree.

      그렇지만 connects two sentences, so you can’t use it at the beginning of the sentence.

      너 is informal while 저 is formal; you shouldn’t use two polite levels in one sentence.

      맞아요, 하지만/그런데/그렇지만 (저는) 안 동의해요. You are right but I don’t agree.
      맞는데/맞더니 안 동의해요. You are right but I don’t agree.

      맥주(를) 원해요, 하지만/그런데/그렇지만 주스(를) 마실 거예요. I want beer but I’ll drink juice.
      맥주(를) 원하지만/원하더니 주스(를) 마실 거예요. I want beer but I’ll drink juice.

  • Sónia Alves

    How about these ones: 이것 이상해요 그래서 안 먹어요.(That’s strange so I won’t eat it.) 내일 날씨 좋알 거예요 그리고 러는 놀을 거예요. (Tomorrow the weather will be good so I’m going to go for a walk.) Thanks for the help 🙂

    • Suga Swag

      그거 이상해요 그래서 안 먹을 거예요.
      내일 날씨 좋알 거예요 그래서 저는 놀 거예요. Actually, you are saying that you will play in this one.

      I can explain further if you want me to!

    • Sónia Alves

      Hi, I made a bit of a mess 🙂
      Yes, of course I do, if you don’t mind.

    • Suga Swag

      이것 = this, 그것/그거 = that
      안 먹어요 = I don’t eat, 안 먹을 거예요 = I won’t eat

      그리고 = and / and then, 그래서 = therefore / so
      러는 = X, 저는 = I (as for me)
      놀을 거예요 = X, 놀 거예요 = I will play.

      놀 already ends with ㄹ so there’s no need to add 을.
      You wanted to say “go for a walk”, but I don’t know the translation for it so I corrected the verb that you used.

      I hope this is understandable ^^

    • Suga Swag

      1. x – 이것 = this, o – 그것 = that
      x – 안 먹어요 = I don’t eat, o – 안 먹을 거예여 = I won’t eat
      2. x – 그리고 = and, o – 그래서 = so, therefore
      x – 러는 = *nothing*, o – 저는 = I, as for me
      x – 놀을 거예요 = 놀 already ends with a ㄹ so there is no need to add 을, o – 놀 거예요 = I will play

      Hope this helps~

    • Sónia Alves

      Yes it helps a lot. I have a long way to go. 감삽니다

    • arti

      You can also combine a verb with 그래서 to give it a direct connection as to why.

      For example, “이것 이상해서 안 먹을 거예요.”

      In the second example, “내일 날씨 좋알 거예요” sounds more like a statement rather than saying “the weather will be good”. I’m sure TTMIK will cover this topic later, so don’t worry about it too much. But if you’re curious, it’s “내일은 날씨가 좋알 거라서 놀 거예요”.

      열심히 하시면 한국어를 잘하게 될 것이에요. Good luck.

    • Sónia Alves

      Got it. Thanks arti.

  • Harvey Rivas Potot

    –> 아침 8시에 일어났어요. 그리고 밥을 먹었어요.
    –> 한국말로 말하는 게 능숙해지고 싶어요. 그래서 공부하고 많이 연습해야 돼요.

    • Kenny Lau

      능숙해지고 > 능숙하고

  • Eugene Evangelista

    어제 친구는 내 집에서 갔어요. 그리고 우리 같이 한국어를 공부했어요.

    • Eugene Evangelista

      Can someone correct me if there is a mistake? Thank you.

    • Ece Önder

      You don’t have to add the 서. Because your friend came to your house, the action is toward the house, it’s not happening in the house.

  • Desra Israyana

    I am student so I must read a lot of book
    저는 학생이에요 그래서 꼭 책을 많이 읽어요
    Is it right?

    thank you

    • Kenny Lau

      그래서 starts a new sentence, so you must put a period before it.

  • Marc

    In the audio file there is a last example that is being said but not written the pdf.

    It is in English:
    I eat a lot of kimchi so I am strong…

    That would be:
    김치를 많이 먹어요, 그래서 저는 강한 이에요?
    김치를 많이 먹어요, 그래서 저는 힘센 이에요?

    • Kenny Lau

      강한 이에요 >> 강해요
      힘센 이에요 >> 힘세요

      강한 is the form used to directly describe a noun which comes after it, like 강한 남자 = strong male.

      Also, you don’t need the 저는 because it is understood by context.

      김치(를) 많이 먹어요, 그래서 강해요/힘세요

  • Nilanjana Saha

    In the sample sentences, in sentence 3 instead of saying ‘thun-i eopsawyo’ , can we use ‘thun-i-ae-yo eopsawyo’ ??

    • Kenny Lau

      If you mean “돈이에요 없어요”, then no, because “이에요” means “to be”.

      돈이 없어요: 돈(money) + 이(subject-marking particle) + 없어요(to not exist).

    • Nilanjana Saha

      yes now i know. 😀 anyways thank you for the help Kenny! 🙂

    • Kenny Lau

      My pleasure.

    • Nilanjana Saha

      Btw can you please tell me how to write in korean from my laptop? i couldn’t find the option to change the language.

    • Nilanjana Saha

      Btw can you please tell me how to write in korean from my laptop? I couldn’t find the option to change the language.

    • Kenny Lau

      This website might help you if you are on Windows: http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/12578/add-keyboard-languages-to-xp-vista-and-windows-7/

      If you are not on Windows, then please tell me your computer version and I’ll help you to try to search.

      In the meantime, you can use an online Korean keyboard: https://www.branah.com/korean

    • Nilanjana Saha

      Thanks Kenny! 🙂
      I’m a windows user so the first link will do. Thanks a lot! 🙂

    • Nilanjana Saha

      May I ask where are you from?

    • Kenny Lau

      혼콘 사람이에요.

    • Nilanjana Saha

      촣다. 저는 인도 사람입니다.

    • Kenny Lau

      촣다 (should be 좋다) is either the unconjugated form (dictionary form) or the plain form… the first form should not be used, and the second form is only used when talking to oneself or quoting others…

      촣다 > 좋아요/좋습니다

    • Nilanjana Saha

      But the first form is many a times used in the Korean dramas to express the meaning of ‘good/that’s nice’. Is it not used otherwise durig normal conversations?

    • Nilanjana Saha

      But the first form is many a times used in the Korean dramas to express the meaning of ‘good/that’s nice’. Is it not used otherwise during normal conversations?

    • Seokjin Jin

      좋다 also means “to like” in many situation.

      니가 참 좋아. I like you very much.

    • Nilanjana Saha

      If I have to say ‘that’s nice/good’ as a reply to sentences like ‘I’m from xyz country, i did this xyz job’, what do I say?

    • Seokjin Jin

      I would say “멋지네요.”. 🙂

    • Nilanjana Saha

      감사합니다 선생님. 🙂

    • Nilanjana Saha

      한국에 올 거예요, 저는 제 ttmik 선생님를 만날 거예요! 🙂
      When i’ll come to Korea, i’ll meet my ttmik teachers! 🙂

    • Seokjin Jin

      You can say 저는 TTMIK 선생님 모두를 만날 거예요. 🙂

      한국에 오시면 저희 사무실에 놀러 오세요. ^^

    • Nilanjana Saha

      Sir this sentence is so complicated. I can’t even understand the particles.

      What’s wrong with the sentence that I wrote? Can’t I say it that way?

    • Nilanjana Saha

      선생님, “좋네요” 데신을 “몃이네요” 말할 수 있어요?

      Sir, can I say” 촣네요” instead of “몃시네요” ?

    • Seokjin Jin

      You can say 멋있네요.

      몃이네요 and 몃시네요 are wrong expressions. ^^

    • Nilanjana Saha

      Sir, actually i wrote it wrong. I’m sorry.
      What I meant to ask was-
      선생님, “좋네요” 데신을 “몃이네요” 말할 수 있어요?

      Sir, can I say” 촣네요” instead of “몃시네요” ?

    • Nilanjana Saha

      Sir, I wrote it wrong. I’m sorry.
      What I meant to write was-
      선생님, “좋네요” 데신을 “멋지네요” 말할 수 있어요?

      Sir, can I say” 촣네요” instead of “멋지네요” ?

    • Nilanjana Saha

      And sir can you please take a look at my comment on Level 2 lesson 7? I have problems regarding the sample sentences.


    • Seokjin Jin

      촣다. > 좋다.

      안녕하세요! 인도에서 온 Saha 씨.

    • Nilanjana Saha

      안녕하세요 선생님! 감사합니다.

    • Seokjin Jin

      안녕하세요! 오늘도 한국어 공부 열심히 하세요.

    • Nilanjana Saha

      네 선생님. 저 열심히 일하겠입니다.
      Or can i say it like dis-
      네 선생님. 저 열심히 공불 거예요.

    • Nilanjana Saha

      네 선생님. 저는 열심히 일하겠입니다.
      Or can i say it like dis-
      네 선생님. 저는 열심히 공부할 거예요.
      I will study hard.

    • Seokjin Jin

      Most of Korean will consider “일” as the work you do in your company. So it will be nice to say “저는 열심히 공부할 거예요.”

    • Nilanjana Saha

      Sir so if I want to say ‘I’ll work hard’ in general, what should I say?

    • Seokjin Jin

      Generally, you can say “열심히 할 거예요”. And if you want to indicate what you will do hard, you can say “열심히 일 할 거예요”.

    • Seokjin Jin

      혼콘 사람이에요. > 홍콩 사람이에요. ^^

    • Kenny Lau

      OMG 석진씨 본인이 저를 대답했어요

  • Mary Wu

    저는 한국어를 공부해요, 그리고 저는 서울에 가고 싶어요.

  • 이케이트

    남편이 한국 보고싶어요. 그래서 우리 고향여행이 갈 거예요.
    “My husband misses Korea. So we will go on a trip to his hometown.”
    시어머니 그리고 시아버지 보고싶어요. 그래서 전화 할 거예요.
    “I miss my mother and father-in-law. So I will call them (on the telephone).”
    저는 다시 학생이 되 고 싶어. 그리고 한국어를 공부 하고 싶어요.
    “I want to be a student again. And I want to study Korean.”

    Are these correct sentences?

    • Kenny Lau

      그리고 only connects two sentences.

      To connect two nouns, you use XX YY와 if YY ends in vowel or XX YY과 if YY ends in consonant. (No, I did not mix them up.)

      To read more, visit here: http://www.howtostudykorean.com/unit1/unit-1-lessons-9-16/lesson-13/#kp1

      시어머니 그리고 시아버지 >> 시어머니 시아버지와
      전화 할 >> 전화할
      되 고 >> 되고
      공부 하고 >> 공부하고

  • TD

    영화 좋아, 그래서 나 많이 영화를 봐요.

    • Kenny Lau

      You can drop the 나 and the 영화를 in the second part because they are understood by context.

      >> 영화(가) 좋아, 그래서 많이 봐요.

      You can also use the causative form of the first verb:

      – (informal) 영화(가) 좋아서 많이 봐.
      – (formal) 영화(가) 좋으니 많이 봐요.

  • Semitic akuma

    btw you forgot the 은 in the example 오늘 비가 왔어요 in the pdf file
    you are welcome .

    • Kenny Lau

      Both 오늘은 and 오늘 are correct.

    • i know but they forgot that coz she said it and read it as 오늘은 but wrote it as 오늘

    • Kenny Lau

      My fault then.

  • Trinity Pate

    Thanks for another great lesson!! Could someone please tell me if these practice sentences are correct??

    어제 집을 청소했어요. 그래서 서울에 안 갔어요 -Yesterday I cleaned the house. Therefore I didn’t go to Seoul.

    저는 그리고 친구 놀아요. 그리고 우리 웃어요 – I and my friends are hanging out. And we are laughing.

    Please let me know if they are right or what I have done wrong!! Many thanks!! 감사합니다

    • Kenny Lau

      Note that 그리고 can only connect two sentences.

      For that reason, it is wrong to translate “I and my friends” as “저는 그리고 친구”.

      저는 그리고 친구 > 저는 친구와

    • Trinity Pate

      Thanks for all your help!! 감사합니다!!

      Would it be correct to say:

      저는하고 친구??


    • Kenny Lau
    • Kenny Lau

      Sorry, I made a mistake.

      You put the particles at the second term, while at the first term you cannot put a particle.

      Therefore, 저는하고 친구 >> 저하고 친구는

  • Nic

    Hopefully this makes sense, please correct it if it is wrong.
    저는 호주 사람이에요. 그리고 호주 음식을 맛있어요.
    I am Australian and Australian food is delicious. Is it correct?
    Thank you in advance

    • Kenny Lau

      호주 음식 is the subject, so you shouldn’t use the object-marking particles 을/를 for that.

      You can use 은 or 이.

  • Kenny Lau

    Note that 그리고 only connects two sentences.

    Also, the -ㄴ form of the adjective is only used when it directly precedes a noun that it describes.

    예쁘고 어려요. = (She is) beautiful and young.
    예쁘고 어린 여자예요. = (She is) a beautiful and young girl.

    • yeah but this answer was like the lesson they explained this 고 in lvl 3
      please if you gonna answer question answer them within the lessons , lvls limits 🙂

    • Kenny Lau

      But the way to connect two adjectives together is not within the lessons? Oh, you can still say 예뻬요, 그리고 어려요. which would be two sentences and which would be within the lesson.

  • Kenny Lau

    공부하지 않아요 > 공부하고 싶지 않아요

    The -서 form has no tense. 만들었서 > 만들어서 (it carries no meaning of any tense)

    There is also a 고 form that you learnt:

    내일은 오빠 오고 우리 같이 여행 갈 거예요 (the 고 form also carries no tense)

  • kristine

    안녕 하세요~~~ 여러분
    Thanks for the great lesson once again!!
    Please view my sentences and correct me if i am wrong 🙂

    1. 한국에 좋아 많이 그래서 있어요 내년에 한국에 갈 거예요
    I like Korea a lot, therefore i will go Korea next year.

    2. 한국어 조금 할 수 있어요 그래서 연습 많이 먹어요
    i can speak a little Korean, therefore i practice more.

    i am new here, please correct my sentence structure. Thanks!


    저는 하생이에요 그래서 아침에서 자고 싶어요 (I’m a student so I want to sleep in the morning)
    Is it right ? *hopeful eyes*